Bipolar disorders are defined by the presence or history of mania/hypomania, which distinguishes them from depressive disorders. Not all patients experience mania/hypomania and hence the DSM-5 has attempted to subtype the various presentations. Please see the criteria and diagnostic interview questions for a manic episode. … Read More »
John Cade rediscovered the use of Lithium for the treatment of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in 1949. In the early 20th century, beverages such as Lithia beer and 7-Up contained trace amounts of Lithium. The latter was marketed as a hangover cure. Mechanism of Action: … Read More »
As MRI’s have greater sensitivity to subtle changes in brain water content, they are better at visualising WMH’s. These areas are hyperintense on T2-weighted (T2) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI sequences, and by consensus are now referred to as “white matter hyperintensities” (WMH), or… Read More »
Bipolar disorder is a disturbance in mood that consists of patients moving between depression and hypomania or mania. A newer entity Bipolar depression, although not present in DSM-V is a valid entity that presents with predominantly depressed mood that lies along a bipolar trait. Following… Read More »
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