Review of Lithium-Induced Renal Dysfunction – Pathophysiology | Diagnosis | Management
There are broadly three types of renal issues associated with Lithium:
- The most commonly reported renal adverse event is impaired urinary concentration in about 40% of patients.
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI):
- Lithium therapy can also induce tubular dysfunction causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI).
- It presents with polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia.
- It can occur as early as 8 weeks after treatment and is reversible during the first 6 years of exposure.
Chronic Kidney Disease:
- Over a prolonged period of lithium usage (≥20 years), evidence suggests that lithium can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the final and permanent stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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