Tardive dyskinesias (TDs) are involuntary movements of the tongue, lips, face, trunk, and extremities that occur in patients with long-term exposure to antipsychotics. Tardive dyskinesia occurs due to supersensitivity of dopamine (D2) receptors after long-term exposure to antipsychotics resulting in downregulation of D2 receptors. The… Read More »
Abulia is defined as decreased or lack of activity (or power to execute activity) despite the desire to do so. According to Barris and Schuman it lies in between apathy and akinetic mutism. It is associated with lesions of the anterior cingulate cortex and… Read More »
Bipolar disorder is a disturbance in mood that consists of patients moving between depression and hypomania or mania. A newer entity Bipolar depression, although not present in DSM-V is a valid entity that presents with predominantly depressed mood that lies along a bipolar trait. Following… Read More »
1. Bipolar Disorder – always ask patients if they have had a manic or hypomanic episode 2. Borderline Personality Disorder – duration of low mood is not sustained and mood instability is prominent. Both depression and Borderline personality disorder may co-exist. 3. Adjustment Disorder with… Read More »
OPEN QUESTION – How have you been feeling in yourself lately? CLOSED QUESTIONS Mood Have you felt low or depressed in yourself lately? Have you felt low/depressed/tearful every day, for most of the day, in the last two weeks? How does that affect you? (empathy) … Read More »
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